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Seperate partitions for USER FONTS and Applications

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Is there a way to set up Mavericks specifically, but all OS X installs in general, so that NO data is written to the startup drive except what is absolutely necessary to start the system and keep it updated?

Ideally I would like to have separate partitions for System, Users, Applications, and Fonts.
Possibly Extra, Library and all the other hidden folders usually associated with the Boot drive as well.

Essentially making a ROM out of the boot partition.

I'm having to do an OS X reinstall AGAIN because my system drive was somehow corrupted.
I've had to deal with on REAL Mac's as well as Hackintoshes with OS versions from 10.6 to 10.9.
I know it's not a drive failure because I'm still using some of the same drives this has happened on, in other machines, and they have been reliable.

I'm tired of having to reinstall EVERYTHING because OS X developed a problem Disk Utility tells me it can't recover from.
Luckily most of my work is on a separate partition that was unaffected, and I know OS X has some nice back up tools that MAY help... For the first time I'm actually running a Time Capsule on my main system.

But why recover all that data, when the problem is one little corruption?

Any one got an idea if/how to get this done.
 
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Is there a way to set up Mavericks specifically, but all OS X installs in general, so that NO data is written to the startup drive except what is absolutely necessary to start the system and keep it updated?

Ideally I would like to have separate partitions for System, Users, Applications, and Fonts.
Possibly Extra, Library and all the other hidden folders usually associated with the Boot drive as well.

Essentially making a ROM out of the boot partition.

I'm having to do an OS X reinstall AGAIN because my system drive was somehow corrupted.
I've had to deal with on REAL Mac's as well as Hackintoshes with OS versions from 10.6 to 10.9.
I know it's not a drive failure because I'm still using some of the same drives this has happened on, in other machines, and they have been reliable.

I'm tired of having to reinstall EVERYTHING because OS X developed a problem Disk Utility tells me it can't recover from.
Luckily most of my work is on a separate partition that was unaffected, and I know OS X has some nice back up tools that MAY help... For the first time I'm actually running a Time Capsule on my main system.

But why recover all that data, when the problem is one little corruption?

Any one got an idea if/how to get this done.

If it is only one machine giving you problems, then I would consider if there is some sort of basic incompatibility happening. I reinstall frequently, at least once a year, but over the existing. Usually only to move to the new OS.

I've been experimenting with ZFS file system on one of my Hacks, and it works very well until the computer reboots. I suspect it is the network chip on the motherboard. Theoretical but based on my experience in general with Realtek NICs. Not certain if ZFS is entirely stable. But it has some advantages you might look in to, like the ability to take snapshots. This is basically a image of the drive state at a point in time. ZFS also uses checksum at the file system level, and can correct errors because of the redundancy of the ZFS and any RAID levels you may use.

ZFS is a major component in FreeNAS, possibly the ultimate TimeMachine backup target. This would run on it's own computer, providing higher restore and backup rates, limited by the physical network in many cases. If you have a lot of computers, especially with different operating systems, this might be a great thing to do anyway. FreeNas can talk to Windows, Apple, and Unix/Linux all at once. Can be a pain to set up if you are not used to users/groups permissions, file permissions, and share level permissions. One trick FreeNas can do that TimeMachine can't is doing file system snapshots. So even if you decided to delete all of your files, or your TimeMachine backup becomes corrupted, you could still restore from a ZFS snapshot. And you can do a proper backup by scheduling a ZFS file system snapshot and putting it on external storage.

You could certainly use mount points, and stuff, common on Unix and Linux. There are plenty of guides for Linux, just have to fine tune the syntax for OS X. I've not done this my self. I've had so much not fun doing this in Linux because of the consequences inherited permissions.

I use TimeMachine backups, and to compensate for lack of space since I optioned my iMac with a SSD, I created shares on a file server and used file system links to make those shares seamless with iTunes.

The thing with what you are proposing is that there can be a lot of work configuring it, problems if the drives drop out for any reason. And the ease with which you can restore from backups. You could write a script to make all of the changes after a reinstall.

Speaking of backups, another option is Carbon Copy Cloner. You can use it to make a bootable backup on a schedule. Might be what you are looking for. Doing a backup to a thunderbolt device or internal second drive could have you backup in the time it takes to reboot.

Systemic file corruption is not inherent to OS X from anything I've read or personal experience. So I wonder if you like to use a certain app like an antivirus or system utility that is causing the issue?

Another option is a program called SpinRite at grc.com, it boots at a low level and basically scrubs the read errors by forcing the drive hardware to do data recovery. Works on any disk, any OS, and any file system. Modern drives do rely on error correction, even when they are working fine.

And the last idea I have for you is if you are loosing power once and a while, maybe a UPS with a usb connection that can tell your computer to shut down gracefully might help.

Unfortunately problems that happen occasionally are the hardest to resolve, and most frustrating. So much easier when smoke comes billowing out of the power supply. I know I rattled on about alternatives to what you were asking, but there is a lot of complexity, syntax, and detail to doing what you want. And it seems unlikely that if you are corrupting your system drive, that you won't also be corrupting additional drives, or partitions that are directly attached.
 
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