I had this same problem moving from 5104 to 5128. After experimenting for a while fruitlessly, including by reverting back to earlier versions of CLOVERX64.efi, I checked the installer log, which told me it had replaced AptioMemoryFix.efi with OpenRuntime.efi. Removing OpenRuntime and placing OsxAptioFix3Drv.efi (I suspect AptioMemoryFix.efi would have continued to do the trick, but I was curious) got my system booting again. These drivers can easily be found in the fat zip releases of Clover under the "CloverV2/EFI/CLOVER/drivers/off/MemoryFix", so you don't have to go hunting. If you need a way to easily mount and write to your EFI partition without a working macOS, here's how you do it from Windows, and I'm sure it is trivial to mount and edit as an elevated user on Linux.
I haven't tried using 5128 again, but my guess is it'll be OK. The problem is the installer will constantly try to push OpenRuntime, so you'll have to update the bootloader manually until either they decide to stop pushing it, or OpenRuntime is fixed for at minimum our use cases (I'm running Haswell with Clover, fwiw).