Late reply but figured it would be helpful after all.
It is indeed a SMBIOS issue for some reason. These settings fixed it for me:
Open your config.plist in clover
Change Product Model to a more recent one - for my 7600K I used iMac19,1
Change Bios Version to IM191.88Z.0058.B00.1705091711...
Here's an update - I managed to fix it.
For those who struggle with the same:
I've recreated the USB but this time with unibeast instead of terminal - went to the recommended bios setting again and now I'm in the install screen. Yay.
I've been building a new PC and wanted to give MacOS a try on it.
I created a bootable USB using this guide and can get into the Clover Boot Manger.
I'm stuck on the step to 'Boot OS X Install from Install macOS Sierra' as it starts booting and gives me quite some text. Then the screen...